The Uthmani Script Its Origin & History
The Qur’an was transmitted to the Prophet of Islam in seven Ahruf to accommodate the various Arab tribes in comparison to their local dialectical tendency. Many of the Companions of the Qur’an learned from the heart, as revealed to the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) through Gabriel. The Companions not only learned the Qur’an from the heart during the life of the Holy Prophet, but they also wrote it on various materials such as bones, stones, leaves, skin, etc.
When the Prophet PBUH died in 11 A.H.(632 A.G.), all parts of the Qur’an were preserved in writing and the memory of the Companions, as well as in the Qur’an in the same order of verses and verses as the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Muhammad PBUH has received it and then ordered others to do the same.
Zayd ibn Thabit (R.A.) compiled all the parts of the Qur’an in the form of a written complied text because it was guided by the first Caliph Abu Bakr (R.A.). This first constructive text was kept with Abu Bakr (R.A.) as the first compiled text is known as Al Jamul Awwal, and it was kept with first Caliph Abu Bakr (R.A.), then with the second Caliph Umar, and finally with Hafsa ibn Umar (R.A.) as the mother of the believers. It was of no value that some other manuscripts such as Mushaf Bai Ibn Kab and Mushaf Ibn Masud were also available.
In 25 A.H. (646 AG), the third Caliph ‘Uthman, along with three other Companions, Abdullah bin Zubair, Saad bin Alas and Abdur Rahman bin Harith bin Hashim (R.A.), ordered Zayd ibn Thabit to develop a single standard, authentic and reliable Directed by Copy from the first written form of the Holy Quran in possession of Hafsa (R.A.). For this purpose, Uthman took the first written version of the Holy Qur’an from Hafsa to make a standard version.
When Zayd finished his work, the Mushaf returned to Hafsa bin Umar. This written form, called Uthman’s script, was kept by Caliph Uthman in Medina. And the rest of the Mushaf was burnt by Caliph Uthman with the consensus of the Companions.
Caliph Uthman, along with the following well-known reciters for teaching the Holy Quran, sends copies of this standard and authentic manuscript to various Muslim countries.
- Zayd ibn Thabit (r.a) was the reciter of the Mushaf of Madinah.
- Abdullah ibn Asib (may Allah be pleased with him) was reciting the Mushaf of Makkah.
- Al Mugirah bin Shahab (r.a) was the reciter of Mushfiq Asham,
- Abu Abdur Rahman As Sulami (may Allah be pleased with him), used to recite the Mushaf of Al-Kufa,
- Amir ibn Abdul Qais (r.a) was a reader of Mushfiq al-Basri etc.
When Caliph Marwan began to rule Madinah, he requested that Hafsa be handed over to Mushfiq, but she refused. And when he died, Caliph Marwan attended his funeral ceremony and asked his brother Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.) for Mushaf.
Abdullah ibn Umar handed over Mushfiq to Caliph Marwan, who, in fear of his appearance, in turn, burned Mushfiq, which could lead Muslims to return to forbidden differences.